By Lynden Moore
This paintings examines the explanations in the back of Britain's monetary decline because the Nineteen Sixties. concentrating on the restructuring of British and buying and selling coverage, the writer discusses the motives and results of deindustrialization and alterations to conventional buying and selling styles. specific recognition is dedicated to the influence of the ecu. The paintings presents: * a brand new standpoint by means of targeting and exchange instead of financial concerns; * a superb comparative research of Britain's buying and selling companions and competitors; * An available and comparatively jargon-free dialogue of a topical and far-reaching topic.
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Extra resources for Britain's Trade and Economic Structure: The Impact of the European Union
In 1996 it was 8 per cent above its level in 1973. The output of the agriculture, forestry and fishing industry (which will generally be referred to just as agriculture) increased at about the same rate as GDP up to the 1960s. Then, after 1970, apparently in anticipation of entering the EU and the UK acceding to the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP), growth began to accelerate. 3 UK output of tradeables, 1948–96 Note: 1990=100. growth accelerated again to reach a peak in 1984. It exhibits a certain volatility associated with production which is heavily dependent on the weather.
The traditional rationale for free trade is the theory of comparative advantage, namely, that it benefits a country to specialize in producing the product in which it has a lower relative cost of production in relation to the rest of the world and to export it in exchange for a commodity in which it has a higher relative cost; by doing so, total world output and therefore income are increased. It is not absolute costs but relative costs that matter. The theory of comparative advantage can be illustrated with 28 The theory of trade, protection, and discrimination 29 a very simple example, as shown below, taking two countries such as Britain and Australia, two products (wheat and cars), and labour as the only factor of production: Australia Britain Output per man per year Wheat (tonnes) Cars 10 30 12 60 Britain has a higher level of productivity than Australia in both lines of production, but her comparative advantage is in cars.
By 1981 Britain was a net exporter of fuel and by 1983 her net exports were equivalent to 18 per cent of her consumption. Since then her exports of oil have fluctuated, partly because of the reduction in production due to the Piper Alpha disaster. Since 1986 she has became a net importer of electricity on a minor scale. In total, in 1995 she was a net exporter of fuels equivalent to 17 per cent of her consumption. The energy sector accounted for 5 per cent of GDP and employment, and 8 per cent of total investment and 30 per cent of industrial investment.