By Martellucci S., Chester A.N., Aspect A.
Physics researchers survey the equipment used to supply, control, and examine the condensate in dilute atomic gases, that have generated loads of pleasure given that their experimental demonstration in 1995. They emphasize the predicted improvement of latest varieties of resources for the unconventional macroscopic quantum approach of coherent atoms. Such assets are having a look an increasing number of just like a number of the kinds of lasers< - >pulsed, CW, mode locked< - >and more likely to produce a revolution just like that sparked via lasers 4 a long time formerly. The 23 papers include the complaints of a world university of quantum electronics held in Erice, Italy in October 1999.
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83, 2876. 61. , 1998, Phys. Rev. 4791. 62. , 1999, Phys. Rev. A 59. 1754. 63. , 1999, Nature 402: 641. 64. , 1999, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83: 5202. 65. , 1999, Science 286: 2309. 66. , 1995, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74: 1043. 67. , 1997, Rep. Prog. Phys. 60: 615. 68. , 1997, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78: 2046. Measurement Of The Relative Phase Between Two Bose-Einstein Condensates D. S. HALL JILA and department of Physics University of Colorado Boulder, CO 80309-0440 USA. Currrent Address: Department of Physics, Amherst College, Amherst, MA 01002-5000 USA 1.
Although the phase of an isolated condensate is not in itself meaningful, one can look for ways to measure the relative phase between two (or more) condensates. 5, in which a single condensate was cut into two pieces with a laser beam and then rejoined. A striking interference pattern, reminiscent of the interference pattern between two laser beams, was observed in the atomic density profile: fringes of enhanced and depleted density depending on the relative phase of the condensates at each position in space.
Suppose we have a BEC described by a macroscopic wavefunction exp (iS), where the phase S is the classical action. For our condensate, we take and S to be single-valued functions of space and time. The condensate velocity, at any point, is related to the gradient of the phase S at that point: where mRb is the mass of a single Rubidium atom. The circulation k around any contour in the condensate is defined by which may also be written 48 Interwined Bose-Einstein Condensates Since the condensate wavefunction is single-valued, must be zero in any simply-connected region with nonzero condensate density.