By Raja Chatila, Simon Lacroix, Michel Devey, Thierry Siméon (auth.), Professor Anibal T. de Almeida, Professor Oussama Khatib (eds.)
This booklet constitutes the shows made on the complicated study Workshop on independent robot platforms, which was once held on the collage of Coimbra, Portugal, June 1997. the purpose of the assembly was once to assemble top researchers within the region of self sustaining structures for mobility and manipulation, and the purpose of this ebook is to percentage the displays with the reader. The e-book provides the newest advancements within the box. subject matters contain sensors and navigation in cellular robots, robotic co-operation, telerobotics, legged robots, mountaineering robots and functions. latest and rising functions of independent syst ems are defined in nice aspect, together with functions in forestry, cleansing, mining, tertiary structures, guidance to the aged and handicapped, and surgical procedure. The chapters are written in a based and complex instructional variety through major experts from Europe, Australia, Japan and united states. the fashion will permit the reader to know the state of the art and study instructions within the sector of self sustaining systems.
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Extra resources for Autonomous Robotic Systems
The information provided by the active vision system is used to control the mobile robot to pursuit a person in real - time. TargetReLo~~~ Smoothl Pursuit& l /lee Figure 3. State diagram of the pursuit process. To perform the pursuit of a moving target we use two basic control schemes: a visual fixation control of the active vision system and the trajectory control of the robot. The visual fixation control guarantees that the target is continuously tracked by the vision system, and gives information about its position to the robot control.
If the movement is sensed by both cameras and it satisfies these two thresholds, a saccade movement will be generated. 4. Image Processing for Fixation The goal of fixation is to keep the target image steady and centered. This presumes that the target is the same for the two cameras. Vergence is dependent on this assumption and, in this work, it is assumed that the vergence is driven by the position of the three-dimensional fixation point. This point corresponds to the three-dimensional position of the target that must be followed.
PROJECTION I lt-i~i~ Iposition + 1 MOTION I DETECTION movement i image at timeT+I Figure 11. Illustration of the image processing used for saccade. The saccade is preceded by searching for a large movement in the images. The searching phase is concerned with the detection of image movements, within certain limits. • Computation of the area of motion using the images acquired at time t(k) and t(k + 1). This calculation measures the amount of shift that occurred[ from one frame to the other, and is used to decide when to climb or to descend levels on the pyramid.