Anti-Chance. A Reply to Monod's Chance and Necessity - download pdf or read online

By E. Schoffeniels

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It is also interesting to note that the appearance of multicellular forms occurs as the atmosphere is enriched in oxygen. This event took place at the dawn of Cambrian times. There is much discussion on the t (TP) triphosphate of (A) adenosine, G (guanosine), I (inosine), C (cytidine). 38 ANTI-CHANCE evolutionary significance of oxygen. Pasteur spoke of oxygen as the creator of differentiation. It is certain that oxidative phosphorylation considerably increased the possibilities for energy uses.

If however we ask the question how it is that the p h e n o m e n o n evolves in this way, we are led to propose, as did Fick in 1885, a mathematical explanation, exactly like the definition of entropy. g. M. Florkin, Aspects biochimiques communs aux êtres vivants, Desoer (Liège), Masson (Paris), 1956. English translation: Unity and Diversity in Biochemistry, Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1960. X M. Florkin a n d E. Schoffeniels, Biochimie et Biologie moléculaire, Desoer (Liège), 1966. § H. J. Morowitz, Energy Flow in Biology, Academic Press, New York, 1968.

The appearance of dissipative structures in non-linear systems far from equilibrium can be demonstrated theoretically as well as practically. The simple system just described presents interesting analogies with complex biological systems. The virtue of its analysis lies in the demonstration that an energy flow is able to engender a molecular organization and that once order is attained, it is necessary continually to furnish the system with energy to maintain this state. In examples complicated progressively beyond that chosen above, it is possible to show not only theoretically but also experimentally that in simple molecular systems ( H 2 0 , C 0 2 and N 2 for exam- T H E R M O D Y N A M I C S A N D BIOLOGICAL O R D E R 23 pie) undergoing an energy flow one obtains through cyclical chain reactions compounds whose concentration is different from that theoretically predicted for stationary equilibrium conditions.

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