By Chris Guy, Dominic Ffytche
The creation of X-ray computed tomography (CT) 25 years in the past revolutionized scientific imaging; X-ray CT itself supplied the 1st transparent cross-sectional photographs of the human physique, with mammoth distinction among kinds of smooth tissue. the long-lasting legacy of CT is, notwithstanding, the spur that it gave to the following advent of tomographic imaging strategies into diagnostic nuclear drugs and the terribly fast improvement of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) over this era.
This e-book is a non-mathematical creation to the rules underlying glossy clinical imaging, taking tomography as its principal subject. the 1st 3 chapters conceal the overall ideas of tomography, a survey of the atomic and nuclear physics which underpins sleek imaging, and a evaluation of the most important matters fascinated about radiation safety. the next chapters deal in flip with X-ray radiography, gamma imaging, MRI and ultrasound. The medical function of diagnostic imaging is illustrated within the ultimate bankruptcy by utilizing fictional scientific histories. 3 appendices supply a extra mathematical historical past to the tomographic strategy, the rules of mathematical Fourier equipment, and the maths of MRI.
This revised variation comprises new introductory sections at the suitable physics of molecules typically, and water, particularly. each bankruptcy now has a desk of key issues with cross-references to different sections. a number of figures have additionally been revised.
The ebook is meant to supply a extensive introductory history to tomographic imaging for 2 teams of readers: the physics or engineering undergraduate taking into account focusing on clinical physics, and the scientific pupil or clinician utilizing tomographic suggestions in study and medical perform.
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Extra resources for An introduction to the principles of medical imaging
Computerised Tomography, be it using X-rays, gamma photons or MRI, always proceeds by a series of slicing steps that reduce a 3D volume, first to a collection of 2D sections or slices, then each slice is cross-hatched with lines to produce a collection of 1D strips. Each stage reduces the amount of information that ends up in the detectors to a level that a reconstruction algorithm can handle without ambiguity. Although crude methods of tomography existed in the early 1950’s, it was Hounsfield’s demonstration of a practical computerised tomographic X-ray method in 1972, which marked the start of what we call the ‘Second Revolution in Medical Imaging’.
Although standard MRI images require many minutes of scanning, the more recent widespread introduction of fast imaging schemes such as Turbo Spin Echo (TSE) and Echo Planar imaging (EPI) allows a single data slice to be acquired in 50 ms. Since 1990 there has been a rapid growth of interest in, and development of, what is called functional MRI or fMRI. It is thought that this very new technique is capable of providing images of brain activity on a time-scale of a few seconds. In the future, spatially localised NMR spectroscopy and imaging of nuclear species other than the water proton will undoubtedly become clinical realities.
Patients had a bubble of air introduced into the cerebral spinal fluid, via a puncture in the spine. The bubble was then encouraged to rise into the ventricles of the brain where it displaced the cerebral spinal fluid. The little bit of extra contrast thus obtained between soft tissue and the adjacent air bubble (rather than between tissue and fluid) was often just sufficient to enable radiologists to detect an enlargement of one brain hemisphere with respect to the other, produced by a space-occupying tumour.