By Steven Brakman
Книга creation to Geographical Economics: exchange, place and progress. creation to Geographical Economics: exchange, position and Growth.Книги Экономика Автор: Steven Brakman Год издания: 2001 Формат: pdf Издат.:Cambridge college Press Страниц: 375 Размер: 1,9 Мб ISBN: 0521770394 Язык: Английский0 (голосов: zero) Оценка:The want for a greater knowing of the position position performs in fiscal existence used to be first and so much famously made particular by way of Bertil Ohlin in 1933. but it is simply lately, with the advance of machine applications capable of deal with complicated platforms, in addition to advances in financial idea (in specific an elevated figuring out of returns to scale and imperfect competition), that Ohlin’s imaginative and prescient has been met and a framework constructed and is the reason the distribution of monetary task throughout area. This booklet is an built-in, non-mathematical, first-principles textbook offering geographical economics to complex scholars. by no means keeping off complex techniques, its emphasis is on examples, diagrams, and empirical facts, making it the suitable start line ahead of monographic and magazine fabric. includes copious laptop simulation workouts, on hand in e-book and digital layout to inspire studying and knowing via program. makes use of case research fabric from North the United States, Europe, Africa and Australasia.• Reader-friendly, built-in, non-mathematical, first-principles textbook featuring one of many quickest growing to be and demanding topics in glossy economics • comprises copious desktop simulation routines, to be had in e-book and digital structure, to motivate studying and knowing via program • really foreign utilizing case research fabric from North the US, Europe, Africa and Australasia
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1,590. 2 927. 612. 5,820. 30. 25. 44. 22,868. 323. 28,908. 21,257. 894. 36,431. 25,890. 510. 5,180. 22,930. 1,460. 6,260. 6 —. 0 Notes: a EAPϭEast Asia and Paciﬁc; ECAϭEurope and Central Asia; LACϭLatin America and Caribbean; MNAϭMiddle East and North Africa; SASϭSouth Asia; SSAϭSub-Saharan Africa; Highϭhigh-income countries. b Respectively: land area (million km2, 1996); population (millions, 1997); population density (people per km2, 1996); GNP at market prices (current billion US$, 1997); GNP per capita, Atlas method (current US$, 1997); GNP per capita, PPP (current international $, 1997); birth rate, crude (per 1,000 people, 1997); death rate, crude (per 1,000 people, 1997); arable land (hectares per capita, 1996); CO2 emissions, industrial (metric tons per capita, 1996); exports of goods and services (% of GDP, 1996); aid (% of GNP, 1995); life expectancy at birth, total (years, 1997); urban population (% of total, 1997).
First, the population density declines with distance from central business areas. Second, almost every major city in the Western world decentralized in the twentieth century (people have started to locate further away from the city center), which can be linked to a fall in transport costs. The monocentric model also has some serious limitations. We mention just two. First, the model does not account for the interaction between cities; it cannot deal with urban systems. Second, the model takes the existence and location of the city as given and focuses on the location of farmers/commuters outside the city.
With respect to the growth of cities in the USA, Glaeser et al. (1992) ﬁnd no support for the hypothesis that cities specializing in certain industries grow faster on average. Instead, they conclude that if external economies are important it is probably more important 4 5 Recently, research in urban economics increasingly uses pecuniary externalities and hence also imperfect competition; see Henderson (2000) for a survey. See Tabuchi (1998) for an attempt to synthesize urban economics à la Alonso/Henderson with geographical economics.