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By Tenney Frank

Passenger fares appear to us to were very low. Passengers even if seem to have been answerable for their very own sustenance, the quarters have been most likely faraway from sumptuous and naturally demise via shipwreck in contrast to lack of freight entailed no monetary loss to the service. -from "Chapter XVI: trade" during this vintage work-an growth of an past 1920 edition-a revered classical student sketches the commercial lifetime of the Roman tradition during the republican interval and into the fourth century of the empire. although later books unfairly supplanted it, this quantity continues to be a very good advent to the capital, trade, hard work, and of the speedy forerunner of recent civilization. In transparent, readable language, Frank explores: .agriculture in early Latium .the upward push of the peasantry .Roman coinage .finance and politics .the "plebs urbana" .the beginnings of serfdom .and even more. American historian TENNEY FRANK (1876-1939) was once professor of Latin at Bryn Mawr university and Johns Hopkins college, and in addition wrote Roman Imperialism (1914) and A heritage of Rome (1923).

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12. Livy, II, 33; Diod. XI, 68. The early number and the date (495 or 471) were matters of dispute among the Romans. See especially Mommsen, Staatsr. II, 272, E. Meyer, Art. Plebs in Conrads Handwörterbuch, and Rosenberg on sacrosanctus in Hermes, 1913, 359. 13. The traditional dates are: twelve tables, 451; the laws of Horatius and Valerius recognizing in some measure the plebiscite, 449; lex Canuleia permitting conubium, 445. 14. The Licinian-Sextian laws contained, according to Livy, a clause restricting the rental of public lands.

Statesmen, however, learned that in forbidding interest they had only increased the difficulty : later notices show that the old legal rate was soon accepted; and when presently conquests in Latium and Samnium opened up new lands for colonization the surplus currency was doubtless absorbed and the financial equilibrium re-established. Notes 1. The story of the revolution is of course full of legendary elements. However, in view of the persisting hatred of “kings” in historical times, and the definite provisions in early laws against the crime of adfectare regnum it is safest to assume that the political consciousness had actually been deeply affected by a revolution which stirred the city to its foundations.

3 The pieces in question were double drachms of the size which was then generally current in Campania. 58 grams, so that the single drachm was considered to be 1-72 of the Oscan pound of 273 grams. On what basis it exchanged with the Roman bronze as we are not told. If bronze then exchanged with silver at the ratio normal later of 1 : 120, exchange must have been a cumbersome process since the silver piece would then be worth 3 1/3 bronze asses. But it is possible that bronze was then worth a trifle more and that three asses bought a didrachm.

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