By Kasugai, Yu; Machtoub, Lina
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2006;38:411–413. 12. Zoccolella S, Beghi E, Palagano G, et al. Predictors of delay in the diagnosis and clinical trial entry of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients: a population-based study. J Neurol Sci. 2006;250:45–49. 23 October 23, 2015 12:42 PSP Book - 9in x 6in machtoub–ALS October 23, 2015 12:42 PSP Book - 9in x 6in Chapter 2 Environmental Factors Researchers are looking for aspects of lifestyle that can interact with genes to cause or contribute to ALS. The notion that ALS could be linked to viral infection is a concept that reappears periodically when researchers focus on the issue.
Flachenecker P. Epidemiology of neuroimmunological diseases. J Neurol. 2006;253(suppl 5):V2–V8. 2. Mayeux R. Epidemiology of neurodegeneration. Annu Rev Neurosci. 2003;26:81–104. 3. Liu B, Hong JS. Role of microglia in inﬂammation-mediated neurodegenerative diseases: mechanisms and strategies for therapeutic intervention. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2003;304:1–7. 4. Yase Y. The pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Lancet. 1972;2:292–296. 5. Fang F, Kamel F, Lichtenstein P, et al. Familial aggregation of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.
Reduced recruitment (reduced interference pattern with ﬁring rates over 10 Hz) 2. large motor unit action potentials (large amplitude, long duration) (Fig. 7) 3. ﬁbrillation potentials Electrophysiological features that support the identiﬁcation of possible primary LMN degeneration include one or more of the following: 1. either reduced recruitment, large motor unit potentials, ﬁbrillation potentials or unstable motor unit potentials alone 2. polyphasic motor unit potentials or increased single ﬁber density alone 3.