Read e-book online Advances in Environmental Research, Volume 13 PDF

By Justin A. Daniels

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2003). , 2006). The results obtained with the combination of the two media, Tergitol agar and TBX agar, for the enumeration of total coliforms and E. , 2006). , 2006). In addition, using 26 William J. Snelling, Catherine D. Carrillo, Colm J. Lowery et al. this small modification, the enumeration of E. , 2006). The combination of Tergitol agar with TBX fulfils the European Drinking Water Directive where the ISO Standard 9308 is indicated for the analysis of total coliforms and E. , 2006). , 2006).

Rarely, infected individuals may develop an illness that affects the heart (myocarditis) or the brain (encephalitis) or causes paralysis (CDC, 2007c). Human noroviruses (NoVs) are a significant cause of non-bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide with contaminated drinking water a potential transmission route (Bae and Schwab, Current and Emerging Microbiology Issues of Potable Water in Developed Countries 17 2008). As members of the Caliciviridae family, NoVs (previously known as ―Norwalk-like viruses‖) are small (27 nm), icosahedral, non-enveloped human enteric viruses that cause acute gastroenteritis (Bae and Schwab, 2008).

Waterborne parasites produce transmission stages which are highly resistant to external environmental conditions, and to many physical and chemical disinfection methods routinely used as bacteriocides in drinking water plants, swimming pools or irrigation systems (Gajadhar and Allen, 2004). Resistant stages include cysts of amoebae, Balantidium, and Giardia, spores of Blastocystis and microsporidia, oocysts of Toxoplasma gondii, Isospora, Cyclospora and Cryptosporidium and eggs of nematodes, trematodes, and cestode(Gajadhar and Allen, 2004).

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