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By David Reed Greenwood; G L Kingsbury; J G Cleland; United States. Environmental Protection Agency. Office of Research and Development

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Tand and ' The following figure shows in general how the output current or pulse size from a gas ion chamber increases as the electric field is increased. 5 THE GEIGER-MULLER COUNTER In the radionuclide calibrator described previously, bursts of ionization due to the arrival of individual particles of radiation are deliberately smoothed out into a steady current, to provide a constant reading of source activity. For many applications, it is preferable to count the individual particles, and in the Pulse Ionization Chamber the electronics is designed to generate a sharp voltage pulse for each ionizing burst.

Note that the energy registered is the energy imparted to an electron when the gamma ray interacts in the crystal via the Compton or photoelectric effects. 3 that an electron produced by the photoelectric effect has essentially all the energy of the original gamma ray, and such electrons produce the "full energy absorption peak" or "photopeak" at the upper end of the spectrum. Compton electrons carry varying amounts of the original gamma energy, depending on the interaction angle, and register as a broad continuum or "Compton background".

M. tube is often in the form of a cylindrical probe connected to the main instrument case by an electrical cord. The outer tube is the cathode, and the anode is a thin wire running down the centre. side window end window pancake Portable �·� �onitor Batteries provide power to generate tube voltage and operate the electronics. Counts per minute can be read off a meter in several switch-selectable ranges, and a slow or fast needle response is usually available by switching in more or less electronic smoothing of the tube output.

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