By Earl R. Mac Cormac
During this booklet, Earl Mac Cormac provides an unique and unified cognitive thought of metaphor utilizing philosophical arguments which draw upon proof from mental experiments and theories. He notes that implications of this thought for which means and fact with particular awareness to metaphor as a speech act, the enduring which means of metaphor, and the improvement of a four-valued process of fact. quite a few examples of metaphor from poetry and technology are provided and analyzed to aid Mac Cormac's theory."A Cognitive conception of Metaphor takes up 3 degrees of explanation--metaphor as expressed in floor language, the semantics of metaphor, and metaphor as a cogitive process--and unifies those by way of studying metaphor as an evolutionary wisdom method during which metaphors mediate among minds and tradition. Mac Cormac considers, and rejects, the unconventional conception that every one use of language is metaphorical; even though, this argument additionally acknowledges that the "theory of metaphor may perhaps itself be metaphorical.The booklet first considers the computational metaphor frequently followed via cognitive psychology for instance of metaphor requiring research. unlike 3 recognized philosophical theories of metaphor - the strain concept, the controversion idea, and the grammatical deviance concept - it develops a semantical anomaly idea of metaphor in line with a quasi-mathematical hierarchy of phrases. In constructing the speculation, Mac Cormac makes much-needed connections among theories of metaphor and extra orthodox analytic philosophy of which means, together with discussions of speech acts and the common sense of fuzzy units. This semantical thought of rationalization is then proven to be appropriate with modern psychologicaltheories of memory.Earl R. MacCormac is Charles A. Dana Professor of Philosophy and Chairman of the dept of Philosophy, Davidson university. A Bradford ebook.
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Extra info for A Cognitive Theory of Metaphor
This metaphor can be classified as an epiphor; for it expresses so strong an analogy that the semantic anomaly between the referents recedes to the background. No pure epiphors exist, for if they did, then metaphors would possess no semantic anomaly and would be analogies rather than metaphors. In "Billboards are warts on the landscape," the clash between the animate and inanimate attributes of the referents provides the suggestive elementthe diaphoric aspect of the metaphor.
The Theory of Semantic Anomaly My use of the word anomaly recognizes that many metaphoric juxtapositions of referents seem both contradictory and ungrammatical. I also recognize that this anomaly may produce an emotional tension in the hearer. But the anomaly is by no means strictly a contradiction (falsehood) nor is it ungrammatical. In the metaphor, "My lawnmower is a wild animal," the semantic markers Inanimate and Animate clash, for lawnmowers are not literally animals. 15 But that is just the point of a good metaphor, to consider a lawnmower as if it were an animal lunging in different directions despite attempts to restrain it.
But such an argument assumes that if something possesses intelligence, then it must necessarily possess all the other attributes that humans possess. Daniel Dennett showed that asking if computers feel pain when it is claimed that computers simulate human intelligence is like asking whether computers experience hurricanes since they also simulate them. 14 If a machine possesses a belief in the sense of a disposition to act, then it need not necessarily possess other attributes that human beings, who also have dispositions to act (beliefs), possess.