By Hiroaki Misawa, Saulius Juodkazis
A radical creation to 3D laser microfabrication know-how, prime readers from the basics and thought to its a variety of powerful functions, equivalent to the new release of tiny gadgets or 3-dimensional constructions in the bulk of obvious fabrics. The ebook additionally offers new theoretical fabric on dielectric breakdown, permitting a greater realizing of the variations among optical harm on surfaces and contained in the bulk, in addition to a glance into the longer term. Chemists, physicists, fabrics scientists and engineers will locate this a worthy resource of interdisciplinary wisdom within the box of laser optics and nanotechnology.
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Extra resources for 3D laser microfabrication : principles and applications
The dielectric function of plasma can be properly described in the Drude approximation when the ions are considered as a neutralizing background : e¼1À x2p x2 þ v2eff þi x2p x2 þ v2eff veff ” e¢ þ ie† x (31) Here the electron plasma frequency, xp, is an explicit function of the number density of the conductivity electrons, ne, and the electron effective mass, m*, x2p ¼ 4p e2 ne =m*. One can estimate the optical parameters of this plasma, assuming that the effective collision frequency is approximately equal to the plasma frequency, meff ~ xp, for the nonideal plasma which is created.
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67 10–12 s. The shock wave leaves the heat wave behind at the time when electrons transfer their energy to ions. This time comprises ten = (men)–1 = 200 picoseconds. 22 T0. 74 1011 Pa. This pressure considerably exceeds the cold silica modulus which is of the order of P0 ~ 1010 Pa. Therefore, a strong shock wave emerges, which compresses the material up to a density q ~ q0 (c + 1)/(c – 1) ~ 2q0 (c ~ 3 is the adiabatic constant for cold glass). 4 Laser–Solid Interaction at High Intensity The material behind the shock wavefront can be compressed and transformed to another phase state in such high-pressure conditions.